A Unified Approach to Human Embryo Culture
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Don Rieger, PhD and Klaus Wiemer, PhD

Comparisons of Global with Sequential Media for Culture of Human Embryos from the Zygote to Blastocyst Stage
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Zech N, Vansteenbrugge A

Comparison of Two Systems To Culture Human Embryos up to Day 3: A Prospective Randomized Study
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S. Verza, 2007 ASRM Abstract

Comparison of Global Medium and GI/G2 cleavage/blastocyst sequential media for culture of human embryos after IVF
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E. Greenblatt, T. Di Beraradino, P. Chromis-Brown, D. Holt, A. Lains, 2005 ESHRE abstract

Comparisons of a single medium with sequential media for the development of human zygotes to the blastocyst stage
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Vansteenbrugge A, 2007 ASRM abstract

A Randomized Prospective Comparison of a Sequential Versus Single Media Culture System
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Dawn Kelk, global versus Cook abstract

Comparison of a Single Medium with Sequential Media for Culture of Sibling Human Embryos to the Blastocyst Stage
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S. Sepulveda, J. Garcia, E. Arriaga, L. Noriega, K.E. Wiemer, D. Rieger

Clinical Studies & Development and Use of global® Medium
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Don Rieger, PhD

Enhanced effect of glycyl-L-glutamine on mouse preimplantation emryos in vitro
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John D Biggers, Lynda K McGinnis, JA Lawitts

Mouse embryo development following IVF in media containing either L-glutamine or glycyl-L-glutamine
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M.C. Summers, L.K. McGinnis, J.A. Lawitts and J.D. Biggers

Comparison of a Single Medium with Sequential Media for Development of Human Embryos To the Blastocyst Stage
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Melanie R. Freeman1 and Don Rieger2 1Nashville Fertility Center, Nashville, TN, U.S.A. and 2LifeGlobal, Guelph, ON, Canada

global® Supports High Blastocyst Development Rates and Pregnancy Rates

In selected patients the ongoing pregnancy rates following culture in global® were 68%. (1)
In recent trials with unselected patients ranging in age from 27-43 years old the ongoing pregnancy rates were 51% with subsequent implantation rates of 27%. (2)

(1) Klaus E. Wiemer, unpublished data, Klaus E. Wiemer, et al. (2001)
(2) Wiemer, K. E., Anderson, A. R., Kyslinger, M. L. & Weikert, M. L Embryonic development and pregnancies following sequential culture in human tubal fluid and a modified simplex optimized medium containing amino acids. Reprod Biomed Online 5, 323-7 (2002). 

global® - Simple One Step Method with Consistent Results

global® contains all required nutrients to support embryonic development from Day 1 through Day 5 with consistent results. The Blastocyst Development Rates were 62% following culture from Day 1 through Day 5 compared to sequential culture in P1 and CCM with ongoing results of 57.8%. (1)

(1) John D. Biggers, Catherine Racowsky. The development of fertilized human ova to the blastocyst stage in medium KSOM AA. Is a two step protocol necessary? Reproductive BioMedicine Online: vol 5. No. 2 133-140 (2002)
John D. Biggers, Lynda K. McGinnis, Michael Raffin. Amino Acids and preimplantation development of the mouse in protein-free potassium simplex optimized medium. Biology of Reproduction; 63 281-293 (2000)
Michael C. Summers, Lynda K. McGinnis, Joel A. Lawitts, Michael Raffin and John D. Biggers. IVF of mouse ova in a simplex optimized medium supplemented with amino acids. Human Reproduction vol.15 no.8 pp.1791-1800, (2000)

The concentrations of glutamine and ammonia in commercially available cell culture media
The amino acid glutamine is an essential nutrient for cells in culture. In aqueous solutions such as liquid culture media, glutamine spontaneously decomposes into ammonia. In this study, we examined the toxicity of ammonia for two different cell lines. The results suggest that precautions must be taken to avoid the deterioration of commercially available culture media, because of the decay of glutamine. Long storage times lead to a rapid decay of glutamine and an accumulation of the toxic degradation product ammonia.
Heeneman, S., Deutz, N. E. & Buurman, W. A. The concentrations of glutamine and ammonia in commercially available cell culture media. J Immunol Methods 166, 85-91 (1993).

Reduction of ammonia formation in cell cultures by L-alanyl-L-glutamine requires optimization of the dipeptide concentration
In cell culture media, glutamine (Gln) decomposes progressively into ammonia and 5-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid. Ammonia is toxic and reduces cell growth. The formation of ammonia is strongly decreased by using the alanine-glutamine dipeptide, L-alanyl-L-glutamine (L-Ala-L-Gln). However, the effects of this dipeptide on the amount of ammonia originating from cellular Gln metabolism are not know. Growing microglial BV-2 cells in a medium containing either Gln or L-Ala-L-Gln showed that the replacement of Gln by L-Ala-L-Gln, at concentrations much below those present in commercial media, was beneficial to the cell growth. Our approach could prove advantageous in culturing various types of cells.
Seiler, N.; Rebel, G J. Biotechnol.

global® allows Day 3 transfer of multiple failure with poor prognosis patients when used instead of co-culture. Clinical trials have shown a 50% pregnancy rate when used for poor prognosis patients and Day 3 replacements in conjuction with Assisted Hatching. (1)

(1) Reference, unplublished data from St. Barnabas Medical Center

Fertilization, embryonic development and pregnancy losses with intracytoplasmic sperm injection for surgically-retrieved spermatozoa
Anderson, A. R., Wiemer, K. E., Weikert, M. L. & Kyslinger, M. L. Fertilization, embryonic development and pregnancy losses with intracytoplasmic sperm injection for surgically-retrieved spermatozoa. Reprod Biomed Online 5, 142-7 (2002).